ResultsAmong the 507 055 adults in this survey, pre-ACA trends were significantly worsening for all outcomes. Compared with the pre-ACA trends, by the first quarter of 2015, the adjusted proportions who were uninsured decreased by 7.9 percentage points (95% CI, −9.1 to −6.7); who lacked a personal physician, −3.5 percentage points (95% CI, −4.8 to −2.2); who lacked easy access to medicine, −2.4 percentage points (95% CI, −3.3 to −1.5); who were unable to afford care, −5.5 percentage points (95% CI, −6.7 to −4.2); who reported fair/poor health, −3.4 percentage points (95% CI, −4.6 to −2.2); and the percentage of days with activities limited by health, −1.7 percentage points (95% CI, −2.4 to −0.9). Coverage changes were largest among minorities; for example, the decrease in the uninsured rate was larger among Latino adults (−11.9 percentage points [95% CI, −15.3 to −8.5]) than white adults (−6.1 percentage points [95% CI, −7.3 to −4.8]). Medicaid expansion was associated with significant reductions among low-income adults in the uninsured rate (differences-in-differences estimate, −5.2 percentage points [95% CI, −7.9 to −2.6]), lacking a personal physician (−1.8 percentage points [95% CI, −3.4 to −0.3]), and difficulty accessing medicine (−2.2 percentage points [95% CI, −3.8 to −0.7]).
Conclusions and RelevanceThe ACA’s first 2 open enrollment periods were associated with significantly improved trends in self-reported coverage, access to primary care and medications, affordability, and health. Low-income adults in states that expanded Medicaid reported significant gains in insurance coverage and access compared with adults in states that did not expand Medicaid.